Saturday, June 30, 2012


Lessons learnt from the Neganega Literacy Programme by both local and international Literacy providers. Extract from Mkandawire Sitwe Benson (2012) An evaluation of the neganega literacy programme in Mazabuka district of the southern province of Zambia. Lusaka:unpublished Masters dissertation but available in UNZA library.  The programme is performing well due to a number of factors: firstly, the aims, goals and objectives of the programme are valid and relevant to peoples’ lives. Secondly, the benefits of the programme are immediate and visible within the community and lastly, the inception, development and implementation of the programme involved all the stakeholders in the community.  Due to the practical skills participants learned, the programme is able to reach a wide audience with a variety of target groups, thereby, commanding a great deal of acceptance from people both within and outside the community.  Voluntary facilitators were very committed to community work even if they were not paid and because they were well-trained for the task at hand, they were perceived as credible sources of information about literacy, HIV/AIDS, sexuality and income generation.  While lessons imparted important factual and practical information, the variety of applied programme components in business, reflect circle discussions, sensitization campaigns and community tours encouraged reinforcement of what students learned from the lessons.  The use of local languages Tonga and Nyanja and the Informal interaction between programme participants and facilitators inside and outside the classroom through field trips developed trust, which made them more influential in the classroom and in the community.  Monthly and annual meetings by programme facilitators to refresh their minds, share strengths and weaknesses provided an opportunity for the staff to learn new things and develop trust in each other.  If programme administrators do not create conducive learning environment, provide appropriate teaching and learning materials, a proper syllabus and put up a mechanism for guiding facilitators with lesson plans and other necessities, the programme might lose a lot of clients, popularity and later become moribund.  The inadequacy of frequent monitoring of facilitators, follow up on graduates’ application of skills in the society might make the programme loose value in the near future.  The inadequacy of external motivation in the form of remuneration of facilitators, might create a sense of programme discontinuity in the near future even if administrators were to change facilitators.


The Zambian film industry is improving at a rapid rate following the changes in the television stations which is expected to be on course by 2013. The new digital broadcasting system will require television stations to run many stations using one broadcasting mode. They may run several channels through one antenna and this will require more content in those channels. Let Zambians make more content materials and programmes for this issue.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012


THE EFFECT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN ZAMBIA By Mkandaŵile Benson There is need for a metal revolution and a political will for Zambians to progress effectively in all areas. Zambia in broad sense is a national language handicapped country. Language handcap is any systematic deficiency in the way people speak, listen, read, write or sign that interferes with their ability to communicate will their peers. Most Zambians, especially in rural areas are not able to express themselves property in English language due to the fact that they have not mastered it for lack of exposure. This strongly disempower Zambians for active participation in the democratic and developmental process of the country. On the other hand, we cannot fairly claim that we are educating Zambians using a medium of instruction which they do not fully understand. The result of this is that the outcome is poor in both theory and practicality. No greater crime can be committed against a nation than to deprive it of its own language because the people’s Merale Spirit is expressed through the language they understand. W can only develop and promote peace through the languages of the people. We can better understand our people and boost on languages through local languages as they are vehicles of people’s culture worldwide. The government o the republic of Zambia declared English as language of instruction and official use at independence because there was need to promote omits since English was considered a neutral language that does not belong to any linguistic or ethnic grouping in Zambia. However, English has politically united the people of Zambia by preventing the conflicts that would have obviously risen if the government had choose one of the Zambia languages as national official. Nevertheless, what English has done to Zambians today is severe destruction. It has been disempowering and challenging Zambia’s slowly since independence from Primary School to higher levels of education, from home to higher institutions of socialisation, from junior offices to senior offices, from villages to towns and cities, from children to adults. English has destroyed the realm of freedom and sovereignty among Zambians. It has linguistically disempowered citizens for massive mobilisation and active participation in economic, social, political and cultural. English has divided Zambians into classes: Those with the ability to speak and use it fluently. Those who try to utter and understand some words and finally those are unable to speak it. Those in the first class use English as an ideology to suppress others. They have occupied influential positions in political, social and other areas of life. Some responsible citizens fail to occupy some political and other positions because of English language. In areas where English is mandatory, people fail to report various matters concerning their areas. The truth shall set Zambia free. African languages are the basis for African development. Whatever it takes, no country can develop using the linguistic medium of another country. Japan developed through local resources. South Africa is widely expanding through the diversification and pluralisation of indigenous languages. Similarly be facilitated through local languages at a national level. Most Zambians do not fully understand what a constitution is. They do not a national level because there is no platform for them. The constitutional documents are mostly in English without any translation to indigenous languages. The national budget and other national affairs address those who speak English and not local languages. By virtual of that, English is barrier to the affairs of the country. English has affect all the domains in the nation. Pupils fail to understand certain concepts and subjects because of the medium of instruction. Some teachers fail to explain to pupils what certain terminologies mean because there is a hinderous in the medium of instruction. Translation interpretation is never 100% perfect therefore, many citizens have been sent to prison on the basis of language. As a nation, we have neglected the importance of local languages by not enforcing them in the educational system. Yet a good number of Zambians are alienating from the Zambian culture as they cannot express themselves properly in indigenous languages. Today, the young generation and some families are on the cross road searching for their real identity. English has brought threats to such generations and families over cultural heritage of the country. It would make more sense to optionalise English language in schools and media stations. It should be treated equally with other Zambian languages. No matter how good we neglect our mother languages, they are still with us in whatever we do. They are important because a) They make us identify the various linguistic groupings within and outside country. b) They influence the way we pronounce foreign words as we take them locally.. However, the advantages of local languages are diverse. The advantages of promoting local languages are that: 1) Promote development process of the country. This will empower Zambians to participate effectively in economic, cultural, social and political matters of the country as they will be free to express themselves in local languages. 2) A country is nothing without its culture and local indigenous languages. Language is a vehicle of culture. Families and children who seem to be alienating from the Zambian culture my be retained at once. 3) Local languages promote and develop peace among citizens as they will be speaking one language, one tongue and one country. 4) Language policy can determine to what extent its citizenry will be mobilised and involved in the democratic process. 5) There will be easy access to information in local languages for Zambians. 6) Promoting local languages at national level will provide opportunity for generations to learn Zambian local languages. 7) Will provide chance for foreigners and tourists to learn and interact with Zambians freely as they will be using languages of the majority. 8) Promotion of local languages will allow Zambians to elect responsible and caring leaders in the country. 9) Local languages will break the linguistic classes among Zambians and promote unity. All language problems will end in Zambia. 10) Promoting local languages will promote more employment for Zambians because more books will need to be written in local languages and media stations will need more people to translate various informations. All these can be effective if they are reflected in a language policy and citizens can effectively take part in democratic and developmental process of the country only if they are linguistically empowered in indigenous local languages.

Monday, January 30, 2012

Essay on Waste Land

The principle aim of this paper is to discuss Eliot’s poem ‘The Waste Land‘which was written in 1922. The paper will relate the poem to some literary movements in the English Literature by discussing the context, themes, cultural value and authors profile to establish the significance of the poem in its time. T. S. Eliot is an intellectually sensitive writer whose works very few scholars can see that it’s a typical reflection of his life experience and imagination embraced in the happenings of his troubled society during his era and century. He was born on 26th September 1888 and died on the 4th of January 1965. He was a poet, critic, and editor born from Thomas Stearns Eliot in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Henry Ware Eliot, president of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, and Charlotte Champe Stearns, a former teacher, an energetic social work volunteer at the Humanity Club of St. Louis, and an amateur poet with a taste for Emerson, Bush (1991). Eliot was the youngest of seven children, born when his parents were prosperous and secure in their mid-forties and his siblings were half grown. Afflicted with a congenital double hernia, he was in the constant eye of his mother and five older sisters. In 1905 he departed for a year at Milton Academy outside of Boston, preparatory to following his older brother Henry to Harvard University, Wilhelm (1990). Eliot's attending Harvard seems to have been a foregone conclusion. His father and mother, jealously guarding their connection to Boston's Unitarian establishment, brought the family back to the north shore every summer, and in 1896 built a substantial house at Eastern Point, in Gloucester, Massachusetts. After writing for so long, Eliot married and ironically, after 1925 Eliot's marriage steadily deteriorated, turning his public success hollow. During the tenure of his Norton year at Harvard he separated from Vivien, but would not consider divorce because of his religious beliefs, Bush (1991). The author of the waste land poem is associated to many literary movements considering the features common in his works. He has those features that include movements from medieval to Renaissance literary periods in the history of English literature. Ancient and medieval legends like the Holy Grail, classical mythology; symbolic representation of cycles of life and death; theme of sick "Fisher King" and loss of fertility which produces a corresponding drought; replenishment of land and healing of Fisher King by re-discovery of truth encoded in the images of ancient myths and rituals. Most of these features fall in different literary movements, Gordon (2000). The themes and subject matters of Eliot’s waste land poem is helpful for curricula or anthologies that have evolved over time. The waste land poem also has features that define group writers who are often loosely associated with or belonging to different literary movements. Eliot has features that also belong to movements like metaphysical poets, Dada and Beat literary movements, Bush (1991). Eliot’s works and particularly the waste land poem has features of realism of the late-19th century movement based on author’s simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns. There is also aspects of naturalism falling in the late 19th century. Proponents of this movement believe heredity and environment control people and this movement clearly reflects in the works of Eliot. The context of the ‘waste land poem’ is that it is addressing the issues of the day characterised by description of the events as unfolded which also apply in the modern day and therefore, it can be described as a modernist poem. In justifying the context of ‘The Waste Land’poem, Gordon (2000:27) says: …..this 434-line poem is probably one of the most important poems of the 20th century full of vigour and energies. Despite the poem's obscurity its shifts between satire and prophecy, its abrupt and unannounced changes of speaker, location and time, its elegiac but intimidating summoning up of a vast and dissonant range of cultures and literatures. The poem has become a familiar touchstone of modern literature. Among its famous phrases are "April is the cruellest month" (its first line); "I will show you fear in a handful of dust"; and (its last line) the mantra in the Sanskrit language "Shantih shantih shantih." This quotation clearly indicate that the context of the poem is addressing and describing the ills of that era blended with voice of prophecy that one would probably relate with as the poem is also touching personal life. The context of this Modernist poetry is portrayed in a number of ways. The poem has irregular verse, at times free, at times reminiscent of the blank verse of Eliot’s plays. The poem is divided into five sections and features multiple voices and a deliberate attempt at creating a sense of fragmentation, discontinuity, and decay each of these section may represent different themes and to some extent subject matters. Waste land poem has a lot of themes as shown in sub headings while others are just in the text. According to Gordon (2000), Some themes include westernisation as described in a number of lines, theme of prophecy, theme of the useless ideas should council themselves as portrayed in the section “The Burial of the Dead,” there is also conspiracy of life, water is life and theme of indifference on the part of the character Wilhelm (1990). For example, under theme of westernisation, the characters in the poem are in a continues state of meditation on the state of Western civilization, especially regarding the sense of depression, waste, and futility of the post-World War I era; the poem mixes descriptions of contemporary life with literary allusions and quotations, religious symbolism, and references to ancient and medieval cultures and mythologies, vegetation and fertility rites, as well as Eastern religions and philosophies; the poem emphasizes themes of barrenness and desolation and portrays a dying society, but the ending suggests hope of redemption through concepts and images grounded on the synthesis of Christian and Eastern (Hindu/Buddhist) spirituality, Bush (1991). All these are aspects that constitute themes in this poem. This poem a typical commentary on problem of modern society as lacking a sense of community and spiritual axis. The" waste land" in the poem as modern culture having drifted away from its spiritual roots; trope of destructive repetition controlling human history; loss of touch with cycles of life and nature, Gordon (2000). It is characterised with images of desolation, sterility, dryness, waste (as a byproduct of utilitarian attitudes and capitalistic and mercantile forms of production and exchange); image of a society that feeds upon itself and also lies mired in its own waste, Wilhelm (1990). Themes in the poem are embended with cultural background and orientation by hinting at possibility of production of new life and redemption of humanity from the by-products of decay; construction of truth from the nearly lost fragments of ancient thought and the wisdom of various cultures. Truth encoded in both the imagery of Christianity and the sacred words of ancient Eastern religions and philosophies; religious syncretism implicit in the poem, Gallup (1969). The poem reveals a number of cultural matters that are directly associated to the author himself. For example, language used in lines 430, the last line and many more others as shown below may be difficult for one to understand without fully understading the background of the author and the languages he has interacted with. Check at this; Poi s’ascose nel foco che gli affina Quando fiam ceu chelidon—O swallow swallow Le Prince d’Aquitaine à la tour abolie These fragments I have shored against my ruins Why then Ile fit you. Hieronymo’s mad againe, Eliot (1971). This is difficult to decipher with understanding the background knowledge of the author and the cultural associatoions he has associated himself with. It can be concluded that Eliot’s poem ‘the waste land’ has been discussed in detailed. The paper has related the poem to some literary movements in the English Literature by discussing the context, themes, cultural value and authors profile to establish the significance of the poem in its time with respect to the question. Reference Bush, R. (1991). T. S. Eliot. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eliot, T. S. (1971) The Waste Land: A Facsimile and Transcript of the Original Drafts Including the Annotations of Ezra Pound Edited and with an Introduction by Valerie Eliot, Harcourt Brace & Company, Eliot, T.S. (2001). The Waste Land. New York: W. W. Norton. Gallup, D. (1969). T. S. Eliot: A Bibliography (A Revised and Extended Edition). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Gordon, L. (2000). T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Wilhelm, J. (1990). Biography of T. S. Eliot, (1888–1965). Pennsylvania State University Press.

Conversion and Compounding

.…word formation is the creation of a new word. Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word's meaning. The line between word formation and semantic change is sometimes a bit blurry; what one person views as a new use of an old word, another person might view as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form conversion. Word formation can also be contrasted with the formation of idiomatic expressions, though sometimes words can form from multi-word phrases through compounding…. Bauman (2009:24). This quotation suggests that conversion and compounding are amongst the many methods used for word formation processes. However, the principle aim of this paper is to discuss with clear illustrations how compounding and conversion contribute to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. According to Kortmann (2005:14), A Lexical item or lexical unit, lexical entry is a single word or chain of words that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon(vocabulary). Examples are "cat", "traffic light", "take care of", "by-the-way", and "it's raining cats and dogs". Lexical items can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, much as a lexeme, but are not limited to single words. Lexical items are like semes in that they are "natural units" translating between languages, or in learning a new language. In this last sense, it is sometimes said that language consists of grammaticalized lexis, and not lexicalized grammar. This entails that any word formation process including conversion and compounding may end up with a lexical item. Plag (2003) says Compounds are those multimorphemic words that we most readily identify as consisting of several parts. In a compound several free morphemes are combined, resulting in a word that often derives its meaning from the combination of its components. Compound words may be formed by combining one or more word classes. For example; motorcade = motor + Cade, bedroom = bed + room, desktop = desk + top and spyware = spy + ware. This illustration reflect that compounding contribute to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. Its also important to note that compounds are often not written as single words but separated or combined by a hyphen as in on-line while others are just combined together. Another illustration of how compounding increase in the number of lexical items in the English language is through the combinations of one or more word classes. Combinations of nouns such that noun + noun compounds are frequent, other combinations also abound and the result for such combinations give us different results as shown below according to Kortmann (2005). talkshow verb + noun = noun tightrope adjective + noun = noun overshadow preposition + noun = verb He further indicates that many compounds exhibit a so-called modifier-head structure, with one part specifying the other in terms of meaning. Thus a blackboard is a kind of board and a talkshow is a kind of show (not a kind of black or a kind of talk). The modifier may function in different ways, e.g. a raincoat is not a coat for but against rain. While the abovementioned examples are endocentric where the meaning of the compound is derived from the meaning of the parts, there are some compounds where this is not the case. A redhead is not a type of head but a person with red hair. Such compounds are called exocentric, because their meaning is not strictly contained in the components, Almeda (1999). This illustration clearly indicates that indeed compounding as a word formation process contributes to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. According to Koch (2002), conversion is one of the highly productive word formation process used to describe a word class change without any morphological marking. The examples as cited by Koch are, party (noun) -> party (verb) We will be at the party They like to party must (verb) -> must (noun) You must eat your soup It is a must that you call him Note that we only speak of conversion when it is clear that a word has been “copied” from one word class to another. Frequently words appear similar without having been converted (at least not recently) – for example, English like exists as a verb, a noun, an adjective or a filler/discourse marker, Koch (2002:24). Because of these illustrations, it’s clear that compounding and conversion contribute to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. Plag (2003:40) “Conversion also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation specifically, it is the creation of a word from an existing word without any change in form. Conversion in English, language is a fairly productive process”. The act where one lexical category or part of speech is converted to a word of another lexical category. Conversions from adjectives to nouns and vice versa are both very common and unnotable in English; much more remarked upon is verbing, the creation of a verb by converting a noun or other word for instance, the adjective clean becomes the verb to clean, Bauman (2009). This illustrates how conversion contribute to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. It can be concluded that this paper has illustrated the contribution of the two word formation processes compounding and conversion to the increase in the number of lexical items in the English language. It was pointed out that a compound is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes. Compounding or Word-compounding generally refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting together old words. In other words, compound, compounding or word-compounding occurs when a person attaches two or more words together to make them one word. The meanings of the words interrelate in such a way that a new meaning comes out which is very different from the meanings of the words in isolation. Conversion on the other hand is a kind of word formation which involve the creation of a word from an existing word without any change in form. Conversion is a more productive process in English as discussed in the paper. References Almeda, Z. (1999). Wordformation process in a Language. Heidelberg: Winter. Bauman, K. (2009). Morphology and Word Formation processes. Middlesex: KRT. Challinger, D. P. (2000) Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London: Routledge Koch, P. (2002), “Lexical Typology from a Cognitive and Linguistic Point of View”, in D. Alan Cruse et al. (eds), Lexicology: An International Handbook on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabularies / Lexikologie: Ein internationales Handbuch. Kortmann, B. (2005), English Linguistics: Essentials. Cornelsen: Berlin. Plag, I. (2003). Word-formation in English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thursday, December 8, 2011


DEVIL IN PARADISE A play written and directed By Sitwe Benson Mkandawile Assistant Director: Princes kamila Chileshe Edited by Mzizi Samson Kantini and David Sani Mwanza SCENE ONE The play start with a melancholy song by some selected members of the cast revealing what is happening in the society. The theatre is completely dark, curtains are closed and everything is happening in the dark. Song Imwe abale mvelani kulira kwathu, chalo chathu cabvuta x 2 Njala: Tayesayesa kufunafuna njila yosiliza Njala, Chalo cathu cabvuta. Dama: Tayesayesa kufunafuna njila yosiliza Dama, Chalo cathu cabvuta. Matenda: Tayesayesa kufunafuna njila yosiliza Matenda, Chalo cathu cabvuta. Umfwiti: Tayesayesa kufunafuna njila yosiliza Umfwiti, Chalo cathu cabvuta. Nkhongole: Tayesayesa kufunafuna njila yosiliza Nkhongole, Chalo cathu cabvuta. The song is stopped by a ‘shut up’ voice by one of the cast memebers and talks begin revealing problems in the society. MR KANGIZA Shut uuuup!!!!!!! [LIGHTS ON], Wo, wo, wo, wo, yi yi, yi for what? You are just making noise when people are dying out there. CAST [Murmering and wondering what is the guy is trying to prove] MR BONGO Eeh! What are you doing? CAST Eeh! Who do you think you are? MR BONGO Are you one of them? MR. KANGIZA I am one of you. MRS BONGO But what are you doing, are you mad? MR KANGIZA Look!!! We all know we have challenges in the kingdom: people are dying, hunger, diseases, prostitution name it. We also know where all these are coming from. CAST Uhu!! eyah! that’s true MR KANGIZA Now, if it means demostrating or carrying out a revolution, lets do so secretly so that by the time we come out we are ready to fight otherwise the king will eat you alive……… if anything hung all of us! CAST We are ready to fight. Any time even now. its too much ……. [The talks are stopped by the coming in of the girl who is Calling for help. The cast on stage is quiet and are going to help the girl at once as others continue to talk]. THE GIRL My mum is very sick Who can help me ooooo Please help my mother Ye ye ye please oooo My mother, my mother, help her, help!!!!!! Ooooo please help CAST [Look at each other] MISS MEKA Let’s go and check on her mother. CAST Help who? Is she the only one with a problem? MISS MEKA Stop it! Let’s just go and help! [As they are debating what to do, LIGHTS ARE OFF and every one agree OK LETS GO AND HELP! And they go off stage]. SCENE TWO [The theatre is completely dark but there is a spot light on stage. The medicine man comes on stage with a lamp. He walks from one corner of the stage to another]. The Medicine Man Women and time! They will never be on time. She said she would be here at exactly this time. Where is she? The Religious Woman Don’t say women and time! Why do you love smearing the rubbish of one woman on all women as if they are all here? The Medicine man Oh yes! The behaviour of women is just the same. Just mention one man who does not complain about their spouses’ inability to keep time. Just give yourself time to reflect about it. The Religious Woman I can’t give myself time to meditate upon such nuisance and prejudice. In fact you men watch out what you spit to women. We carried you in our womb for nine months. Our belly shaped you. You ate our flesh and drunk our blood. And some of you even took longer. THE MEDICINE MAN Was I called here to be tutored about conception, the longevity of pregnancies, child bearing and rearing? The Religious Woman No for you it’s too much. A small mistake by one woman its all women. Learn to respect women sometimes. The Medicine Man Sometimes Indeed! The Religious Woman I warn you! Don’t be funny Mr Medicine Man. The Medicine Man Oooh! You want me to be funny. Is this what this temper is about? Ah! I have an idea. Let me just touch them. The Religious Woman Touch what? The Medicine man Your nice round breasts only sucked by priests. The Religious Woman What troubles you ayyi? Everytime we meet you think of my skirt and my breasts? The Medicine Man: Yeees! Just look at your temper. It is psychological. Look it’s just the two of us. Can’t we think of something constructive for once? The Religious Woman [just look at him as he speak] The medicine man Say something! ….. Ok. If you have nothing better to offer here and now, I have no time to waste. I have already given you the attention you deeply desire. The Religious Woman Yes I desire attention but not for my breasts. Now listen Mr. Medicine man; I called you here because the kingdom is in danger and no one is ready to listen to the cry of the people. The Medicine Man Woman! Who doesn’t know that there is turbulence in the air The Religious Woman Don’t say woman Mr. Medicine man. This is a serious matter because the king himself is involved. People suffering, dying, hunger and everything that is happening. THE MEDICINE MAN Eh, eh, eh!...... THE RELIGIOUS WOMAN Yes. I heard Mr. Intellectual the so called Wiseman discussing with the king to bring in a wrong solution man leaving the real solution to the problems. THE MEDICINE MAN Why would the king do that? THE RELIGIOUS WOMAN He is receiving things or loyalties from the problem source. THE MEDICINE MAN Woman, are you aware that accusing the king of such gross misconduct is equivalent to treason. If he hears this nonsense, he will eat you alive. Death by hanging or worse still set you on fire and then no worms will feast on you. Woman! THE RELIGIOUS MAN Don’t say woman. I am a religious woman and I should tell you the truth. Our people are suffering out there, dying of hunger, diseases, poverty name it. THE MEDICINE MAN I can’t imagine what he will do to us once he know this and in fact I am out of here … [trying to walk away] THE RELIGIOUS WOMAN What ever I have told you here is the truth. THE MEDICINE MAN Even if that was the truth, which villager in this kingdom would believe that? And worse still take action against the king. Just shut up woman. He will eat you alive! The Religious Woman This plan to lie that he has found the solution man can’t work. People will not wait for another day. The Medicine Man Ok look woman! The king is a wise man ordained by Gods. Am sure he has considered the size of his anus before swallowing this udala seed you are talking about. If you would excuse me now… (Medicine man leaves the woman on stage as he chants something casting a spell in the air and leaving without looking back. The religious woman watch him off stage and she says) The Religious Woman The Odula seed is big this time. His thing will bust. Yeh! Men…. The advice of a woman is of little value, but foolish is he who does not take it. Just watch. (looking straight at the door used by the Medicine man and she also uses another door AND LIGHTS COMPLETELY GO OFF). SCENE THREE [The cast comes on stage discussing issues in the community starting with the girls mother as LIGHTS SWITCH ON]. Mrs Bongo [Holding the Girl as they come on stage]. You mother will be ok just cool down. MISS LEYA How can she be ok when the hospitals have no medicine and she waited at the clinic for four hours just waiting to the scene by a doctor? MR. BONGO Ok the situation is just bad. Even in streets children keep on increasing every day and the number of thieves and prostitutes are increasing every day. MR HENGELI The situation is the same with school. My daughter says there is one teacher from grade one to seven at Kalopapa school. They are building more clinics, hospitals and schools but without doctors, nurses and above all proper medicines. MR. KANGIZA Yes, and in schools there are no books and what they learn is useless – doesn’t carry water just preparing them to be on the street. [Free improvisation by cast. They are joined by ZIKA] Can I have your attention please. These problems are too much now and if we are not careful, all of us will die just like that one by one. Our society is in shit Our families eats not Our parents are in disarray Our sisters messy in street Parading in style fashioned skirts Rolling with men at will Calling them names to seal Our brothers are homeless And we are all in total mess Dying every day in numbers. Should we wait for someone to come and solve our problems? CAST No! ZIKA Abash poverty? CAST Abash! ZIKA Abash diseases CAST Abash! ZIKA Abash corruption CAST Abash! ZIKA Viva solidarity CAST Viva! ZIKA Members of Limila Kingdom. Our King is corrupt. CAST Oh no! uuh! Yeh! ZIKA Oh yes. I head kings men discussing the plans by the king to bring to us a fake solution man. CAST Oh no! uuh! Yeh! MISS LEYA You are putting us in trouble. If the king hear that he will eat you alive CAST Throw staff on her [Saying you work for him] MISS LEYA No, no, no stop. I am with you. Lets demonstrate. CAST Yeeees KANGIZA Viva demonstration CAST Viva KANGIZA Do you want the king to solve our problems CAST No. ZIKA Ok, ok, ok, I propose we find our own solution to address our problems. CAST Yes. Viva, viva. [drums start beating as others shout lets go road side while dancing. A drama song comes and they start dancing celebrating the demonstration – LIGHTS OFF]. SCENE FOUR [LIGHTS ARE ON – The king and the Wiseman go on stage. The wise man informs the king] THE WISE MAN Your highness, the people are demonstrating through out the community and right now they are threatening to come here. THE KING Coming here where? I gave you direct and specific orders to stop those people. THE WISEMAN The soldiers have been fighting with them for sometime now. THE KING I said stop them and not fighting. THE WISEMAN That’s what they are doing your highness. THE KING I said use the spears, bowls and arrows without hesitation and care. That’s your job. Those, those things should not step a foot on this palace. [Two soldiers come in] SOLDIER ONE Your highness, sorry, our spears are finished. SOLDIER TWO Our store room is completely empty your highness. [the religious lady and the medicine also joins.] THE KING What about muzzle loaders, I mean those traditional guns we have and we have gun powder in abundance. Don’t give me any excuse! THE RELIGIOUS LADY That’s just a peaceful demonstration and we cannot use spears and guns. Your highness. May be you should consider the alternative. THE KING What alternative religious woman! What do you know about security and fighting. THE MEDICINE MAN Your highness, All our soldiers are retreating and the pressure is increasing. THE RELIGIOUS LADY May be we allow them to come here and you address them your highness. THE KING [the king stands] You people are not doing your jobs. I will fire all of you especially you and appoint my wife. After all she has been with me for so long and she has gained a lot of experience. THE WISEMAN [Takes the king at the corner] Your highness, the people are merely advising you on the right thing to do. THE KING [WHISPERS] They are undermining my authority and just finish resources of the kingdom. THE WISEMAN The pressure is too much from the people we should allow them to come here now your highness or they might force themselves here. THE KING [Looks at each one of his men and keeps quiet as he moves stage left and right and LIGHTS ARE OFF] SCENE FIVE [The king and the cast confrontation plus drama dance to end the play. The cast is sited before the king]. THE RELIGIOUS LADY Members of limila kingdom, I only speak what the gods and goddesses have spoken. Whatever problem we face in life, it has a reference point. There will be a point that you will make reference to. Today, our kingdom is making that reference point. CAST Yes, yes, great, [agree] THE MEDICINE MAN My king, as I stand here, instability and indecisiveness has taken me into the valley of ambivalence. Am saying so because my king, if you do not put this situation to an abrupt end, you will soon be standing between the den of the lion and the bottomless pit. I propose with strongest conviction that you should not allow these chaps filled with unsaciable appetite for power to dose you with their cheap advice of removing you from the thrown. You are the best. Wamuyayaya! CAST Massive disaproval – awe, atase, just sit down if you have nothing to say [bitter] THE INTELLECTUAL (THE WISEMAN) Limila kingdom was belt on principles. We have existed for many years with our ideals, good morals and cooperation; free of hunger, free of diseases and above all, free of poverty. But today, all these ideals are being challenged and I ask each one of us to be strong. CAST Yes, uhu, [agree] THE KING Fellow men and women of Limila kingdom, we all know the reasons why we are gathered here. Our community is struck with calamities; hunger, diseases, lack of water and generally, economic crisis. I constituted a team to look into this matter and the solution to all our problems is on the way as I speak. The solution which is coming is right in my heart and I am the solution. CAST no, awe, kulibe [they all show disagreement] KING Listen! Stop making noise, let me say something! CAST Owe, no, forsek THE KING I am your king and the solution man. I order you to stop now!!!! CAST Awe, no, get out, viva ZIKA [stand, interrupts and says] I am the solution man CAST Awe, no. ZIKA We are the solution ourselves CAST Yeeeees, ZIKA We are? CAST Not Fools ZIKA We are? CAST Not Fools ZIKA We are not fools. Ms Religious Woman What peace do you preach? Mr Intellectual What Diplomacy do you teach? Mr Medicine Man What cure do you procure? Mr Politician Watch your speech! They united in Berlin Down they came in sheep skin To kill spill African blood; They united in New England town Off they went to truck them down To kill spill red Indian blood; They united in Washington DC Declared a death decree To kill spill Aborigine blood. Jesus Christ, they killed Marcus Garvey, they killed Martin Luther King, they killed Michael Smith, Tubal Uriah Butler, Etheline Roberts, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, Che Guevara, Haille Selaise, Nzinga, Samori Ture, Shaka, Patrice Lumumba, Steve Biko, Bob Marley, they killed Culture, they killed Lucky Dube, yes they still killed! While we stand aside and look! Old tricky tool of divide and rule Perpetrated by political prostitutes and destitutes Who always oppose but barely propose them we must depose Crowning surrogates for neo-colonial population boom Making more markets for more caskets and gloom Licensing night clubs, pubs and sex hotels Making brothels out of public motels Sex mercenary squads masked in youth, cultural and scholarly programmes Gunning down militant African collegiate with doldrums For how long shall you break your shrine drums? Ms Religious Woman You got a book and left a gun You closed your eyes and lost the land You suck your brother behind the alter Tying your kids with orphanage halter And you cheat mistreat your people Ploughing money in pulpit plates Yet poverty remains in their gates Indeed, a cheer giver a believer in need What peace do you preach? You are nothing but a bloody leech! Mr intellectual Your brains are ineffectual Can’t think beyond the white paper Your head is full vapour Can’t reason reasonably in our torrid zones Caged bird headed for cold zones Caught up in a virus mental web Your originality about to completely ebb What diplomacy do you know? You are nothing but a miseducated whole! Mr Politician Yes you demon class magician Watch your speech full of inferior sense of moral code Always putting us in the cold Setting African man against his fellow man Inciting murders and acquitting criminals This battle is not of character assassination and assassination of character Your little head is combated in long term projections you can’t see Beyond a year your budget cannot be laid T’s full of money inducements you call it aid Then why can’t you use it as you wish Yet that is your favourite dish Why watch not your speech Digging a deep ditch Mr Politician Mr Medicine Man A chemical weapon now sent out for all In fast food supplies and the GMO Soft drinks and lethal alcohol Tujili-jili for one who can’t afford a brawl Enough vitamin A we have in non-vegetable Fortified foods what are they for No medicines in the hospital Just venomous vaccines free for all Virus laced birth control pills What went wrong with our natural birth control skills? Contaminated condoms orchestrated everywhere Adultery is no more sin once a condom you wear Everywhere are covert clinics and hospitals Yet disease still put us on the toes The delivery moment is now critical Women bellies busted before nightfall Falling from beds so tall Scissorian births on the whole Deformed babies on the overall That is the antenatal Paid not to bring black babies on this world to crawl But terminate and eliminate them once and for all This is a war This war is not a war Of treasons and prisons, schools and fools This war is not a war Of multipartite and NGOs, donors and honours Because this war is but a war Of unity and trinity Of going back to cultural virtues and natural victuals This war is a long term operation blue print Marking every African footprint With slow killing poisons, fertility destroyers Cancers, rumours and tumours, heart disease and TBs Swine flu, bird flu We are, not a fools We are? CAST Not fools. [The cast is free again] THE KING [Orders the soldiers to arrest him] Arrest him now – and death by hanging [soldiers want to go and arrest him but the people stand to protect zika at the same time] THE KING Arrest him now! THE SOLDIERS Attempt to arrest Zika ZIKA shouts! We are? CAST Not Fools THE KING I said arrest him SOLDIERS [Advance to Zika] ZIKA [Shouts] We are? CAST Not Fools [The soldiers attack Zika and the cast beat both the soldiers and the king. In the process of FIGHTING BETWEEN KINGSMEN AND THE CAST, LIGHTS GO OFF] SCENE SIX [Interior monologue by the king. He is walking stage left, stage right time and again as the voice is heard through the PA SYSTEM and the music voice fades together with the lights go off ]. TIGHT LIP ENDING End of the play

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Education Planning

The principle aim of this paper is to discuss what education planning is including the factors that should be taken into account in the process of education planning. The paper will take into account the role of stake holders in education, social classes, traders, professionals, the workers, peasant and lumens proletariats. The paper will start by defining some key terms in the question and then proceed to the main body.
Education is defined as “Developing the capacities and potential of the individual so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. From this perspective, education is serving primarily an individual development function. The process by which society transmits to new members the values, beliefs, knowledge, and symbolic expressions to make communication possible within society. In this sense, education is serving a social and cultural function” Methian (2004:18). Planning on the other hand is a primary managerial activity that involve defining the organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing plans for organizational work activities in order to provide direction, reduce uncertainty, minimize waste and redundancy as well as setting the standards for controlling, Fletcher, Campbell & Hall, (1990), (Devia, 1999).
According to Moosen (2007:4) “Education planning is describing or determining events, conditions, needs of some future point in time like forecasting number and types of students and expansion of facilities needed for them. It is a means of generating present or future goals and objectives for the education system”. He further indicates that it involves planning, the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities in the education system. It also involves organizing, the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Who is to do them? How the tasks are to be grouped? Who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made within the education system. It also involves leading and controlling where there is motivating subordinates, influencing individuals or teams as they work. Selecting the most effective communication channel and monitoring actual performance, comparing it to standard and taking actions where necessary respectively, (Fletcher, Campbell & Hall (1990).
Morgan (1999) says there are many factors that affect education planning amongst these include social classes, resources available, political influence, economic and others. Traders, professionals, the workers, peasant and the society as a whole play a critical role when it comes to education planning.
Since education planning is a process of intervention that involves the market forces or for seeking alternative solutions to those provided by the market. It is clear that traders and other professionals are actively amongst the factors to include in education planning. When market fails the state is requested to intervene. There are many examples of such state interventions to perfect the market forces. Many a time state intervention can also be seen as an alternative to market forces. This generally happens in centrally planned economies and in such case all major decisions regarding the economy are based on planning process and are arrived at by the planning bodies.
Savage (2000) Social classes as well have a strong influence on education planning. Social classes are economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society. Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, political scientists, economists, anthropologists and social historians. In the social sciences, social class is often discussed in terms of 'social stratification'. In the modern Western context, stratification typically comprises of three layers: upper class, middle class, and lower class. Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes (e.g. occupational). The most basic class distinction is between the powerful and the powerless. Social classes with a great deal of power are usually viewed as "the elites" within their own societies. Various social and political theories propose that social classes with greater power attempt to cement their own ranking above the lower classes in the hierarchy to the detriment of the society overall. By contrast, conservatives and structural functionalists have presented class difference as intrinsic to the structure of any society and to that extent ineradicable, Kezar, (2001). In Marxist theory, two basic class divisions owe to the fundamental economic structure of work and property: the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The capitalists own the means of production, but this effectively includes the proletariat as they are only able to sell their own labour power (See also: wage labour). These inequalities are normalised and reproduced through cultural ideology. Max Weber critiqued historical materialism (or economic determinism), positing that stratification is not based purely on economic inequalities, but on other status and power differentials. Social class pertaining broadly to material wealth may be distinguished from status class based on honour, prestige, religious affiliation, and so on, (Verso, 1990). Theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf have noted the tendency toward an enlarged middle class in modern Western societies, particularly in relation to the necessity of an educated work force in technological economies, Reigeluth, (1993). Perspectives concerning globalization and neocolonialism, such as dependency theory, suggest this owes to the shift of low-level laborers to developing nations and the Third World. Developed nations have thereby become less directly active in primary industry (eg. basic manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc) and increasingly involved with "virtual" goods and services. The national concept of "social class" has therefore become increasingly complex and confused, Schlechty, (2001).

Education planning need to take into account a number of forces and stake holders because it is an exercise of optimization of resources. It attempts to maximize output within the given resources and ensures that the benefits are distributed more equitably among various sections of population. Since planning activities attempt to indicate what is to be taken up first and what is to be taken up at a later stage, it is also seen as an exercise in prioritizing the activities to be undertaken. Though priorities of a plan are decided by the planning bodies, the prioritization is a part of planning process itself. This explains why the workers, peasant and lumens proletariats including the other members of the society has to be involved in the education system.

The workers, peasant and lumens proletariats and others must be involved in education planning for it to be implemented effectively. Since planning will require individual to implement it and monitor its progress as it is a complex process of taking decisions for future actions in order to achieve pre-determined objectives by optimum utilization of available resources in a limited time frame. Thus a pre-condition for planning is the existence of certain objectives which need to be achieved and constraints in this respect are time and resources. Here resources include all the three types of resources namely physical (or material), financial and human resources. It is said that we plan because we have limited resources and we have to achieve our objectives within the constraint of these limited resources.

Education planning must involve and take into account the different factors which might be directly or indirectly hinder its progression because the planning is very frequently used in daily life and every person without exception does some planning at individual level when one has to accomplish some task. Households plan for meeting the requirements of the family within the income available and thus plan for monthly expenditure. When planning is undertaken at the individual or household level decision for future actions are taken by individuals. However, if planning is to be undertaken for a system e.g. planning for education, the important issues to be addressed are : who (and at what level) will decide about the goals, objectives, allocation of resources and time frame which are important and essential components of planning. At the systems level these decisions are taken at various hierarchical units. This concept of availability of various hierarchical units for planning is called the multi-level planning framework. It means the existence of hierarchy of levels of planning with clearly defined territorial jurisdiction. Under this framework planning is possible at national, state (provincial), district, sub-district and village level. However in India planning particularly in the field of education is carried out at the national, state and in a limited way at the district level only.

In education planning in any country there can be a possibility of developing plans at various levels. Specifically in the big countries and even in medium sized countries the planning is undertaken at more than one level, that is, at various hierarchical administrative units. In many countries the hierarchical units available for planning are national, provincial, district, sub-district and village levels. It may therefore be noted that planning for education can possibly be undertaken at these levels. Undertaking the planning at lower levels along with the higher units is refereed to as decentralized planning. However, if we consider the methodology of planning for education it may be made clear that the methodology or the steps involved in planning remain the same whether plans are formulated at higher level or at the lower level. In order plan for education there are certain steps that are involved. These are as follows according Kezar, (2001:23) “ Diagnosis of the Educational Situation, Target Setting, Intervention Strategies and Activities, Costing and Budget Preparation, Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism and Negotiations, Appraisal and Approval”.

In education planning, the roles played by stakeholders also cannot be ignored. The roles of each stakeholder in a school district provide an integral part to the entire organization. Like a system of checks and balances, the school board oversees a superintendent and the superintendent oversees the site administrators. The parents and students, as stakeholders, have a right to complain to the board, to the administration, and to the superintendent concerning the changes and adherence to policy. Though each stakeholder has a say in the business of the district, the power and influence of say may depend on the role and the position of a stakeholder. As the ideas and methodology change to meet the information age, the structure and hierarchy within a school district and the role of the stakeholders may change. Zambia is currently revamping administrative and teaching roles within the schools, which may restructure the leadership of the school board, superintendent, and other educational stakeholders who participate in the educational processes.
As the roles change for the stakeholders, a new set of skills will have to be incorporated into each role. Additionally, decision making powers may shift; the check and balance system may move in different directions; and the final authority may come from stakeholders other than the school board or the superintendent of the district. All these factors has to be included in education planning.
The education or studies ranking in the highest tier of influences or prove to be quite different from one another in a variety of ways. Some nominee’s stakeholders conform to a conventional understanding of a study, as a relatively discrete work taking the form of a clearly identifiable core product like a report, monograph, or commission proceedings, (Dunkan 2000). For some time there has been widespread concern in Zambia over gender patterns in educational performance. Recently, this concern has focused on the perception that many educational factors have to be considered in the education circles especially when planning. While gender was the major factor under consideration, the research brief also required an examination of the relative impact of other independent variables on participation, performance and post-school destinations including geographic, demographic and socio-economic factors.
Education planning requires a lot of efforts including putting into consideration a variety of factors possible. One of the important stages in planning exercise is detailing out the implementation plan. When planning at the lower levels, e.g. district level planning, implementation is part and parcel of planning activities, (Jackson, 1987). A plan document is incomplete if it does not contain detailed plan for implementation of the programmes and projects that the plan contains. It thereby means that planning for implementation should be inbuilt in the plan document. A failure in the achievement of plan targets in the education sector is generally attributed to the lack of detailed planning for implementation. Planning for implementation facilitates the process of implementation of programmes and projects by providing a sound mechanism of monitoring in the form of implementation schedule and it also increases the efficiency of the system by minimizing the costs of implementation of a given programme or project. Planning for implementation makes it possible to critically analyze the activities of a given educational programme and to develop an implementation schedule which can be used for monitoring the progress of implementation, (Jackson, 1987). There are certain steps that are necessary in planning for implementation of educational prorgammes or projects. These are; listing of activities that make up the prorgamme; thinking through each of these activities; establishing inter-relationships between these activities; establishing a network; setting activity duration; determining material, equipment and human resource needs; deciding about time duration for the programme implementation of each activity; identifying identical activities of the programme which cannot be overlooked without affecting the duration of the programme implementation and resources invested in it; and thinking about organizational arrangements for carrying out programme activities.

In education planning this also involves scheduling forms, an important exercise in planning for implementation. Scheduling refers to the process of converting an educational plan into an operating time table which establishes start and completion time of all the activities of the programme/plan. There are several ways of constructing implementation schedules. However, an effective implementation plan makes use of the network based techniques such Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM), (Jackson, 1987). PERT is a network based procedure that facilitates planning, scheduling and controlling of education programmes and projects. It provides methods for measuring actual progress of the programme against expected progress, for comparing consequences of proposed alternative strategies, for predicting future programme status and for optimizing utilization of resources. Listing all possible activities of the programme is a key step in planning for implementation of the educational programme. The next step is to gather information about predecessors of each activity. The third step, on the basis of these information, PERT network for the programme can be developed. Fourth, once the PERT network of the programme is developed then there is a need to obtain information on the time required to complete each activity. Fifth, this is followed by three alternative time estimates (i.e. the optimistic activity time, most probable activity time, and pessimistic activity time). These three activity time estimates help the programme team to make the best guess of expected activity time. In this connection uncertainty can be expressed by providing estimates ranging from the best to the worst possible time for completing individual activities, (Jackson, 1987). Finally, the PERT network for the given educational programme is drawn on the basis of the above information. Once the PERT network is drawn, the next step is to estimate critical path in the network. This is done by using both forward pass and backward pass methods. This helps to establish early start and latest finish time of each activity. Also activity slack is estimated by using early start and latest finish times. The activities having no slack are termed as critical activities and the longest path on the PERT network is identified as critical path. The time required to traverse the critical path becomes the programme implementation period. All these information, when put in a tabular form, makes the Implementation Schedule of the educational programmed.

Educational planning also requires negotiations, appraisal and approval. The plans developed are draft plans till they are discussed and finally approved by the approving authorities. Since resources are to be allocated for implementation of plan, the negotiation process is very important. Many proposals in the plan may require financial allocation from the higher authorities. Hence the plan may become final only when they are discussed and finally approved by the authorities by approving budget and allocating funds as per requirements, (Morgan, 1999).
However, the approving authorities look into the desirability of proposals and the feasibility of implementation of the plan. This is the process of negotiation between those who formulate the plan and those who have to finally approve the plan and budget. It is generally found that some cut in the proposed resource requirement is done by the authorities and in such case the plan need to be revised in the light of discussion. Based on the resources assured by the approving authorities, plan proposals are to be prioritized. After such re-prioritization so as to establish a link between what is proposed and the extent of resources available, the plan is finalized. In order to approve the plan the authorities, who have to approve the plan and budget, do generally like to do comprehensive review of the various aspects and components of programme proposals, (Parsons, 1997). It is therefore seen whether the plan is technically sound, financially viable and justified and administratively feasible. This is done with the help of a team of experts who discuss the plan proposals at length with the planning team. This process is known as the appraisal of plan. Thus an important aspect of plan negotiation is appraisal through which the opinion of the experts is sought about the soundness and feasibility of plan proposals before it is finally approved for implementation.

Negotiation is a process by which one can bargain for more resources. If the educational plan proposals made in the plan document are justified and the planning team is able to convince the authorities it is very likely that they may get more resources. However, if the plan proposals are weak and unconvincing the chances are that they may get less amount of resources. The soundness of the proposals which constitute a plan is an important consideration influencing the amount of resources allocated, (Kezar, 2001).
Education planning is vital as it revitalizes and materializes many society issues. As the students evolve and adapt to the educational models that are introduced, student may dictate the success or failure of the programs. The students are creating their world through the education that the stakeholders provide and in time they will restructure and modify the educational system to fit their environment and learning needs, (Savage, 2000). The perception of each stakeholder in regards to the teacher’s dismissal for displaying the nativity scene is as individual as the roles of the stakeholders themselves. Each perception has to be incorporated in the support or defense of the dismissal and the entire academic community will be changed because of the dismissal. Though the ideal of the separation of church and state sounds simple, each stakeholder has to cope with their individual beliefs and those of the population of parents and students for which they serve. The stakeholders represent the beliefs and standards of a community while still abiding by the decisions of state and federal law, (Reigeluth, 1993). How the stakeholders perceive the incident will define the moral boundaries or interpretation for issues that are forthcoming. Therefore planning in education should involve a variety of factors and stake holders.
In conclusion, the paper has discussed what education planning is and it has disclosed that many and varied factors such as social, economic, natural, child rights violations and political factors affect the education system and hence have contributed to the institutionalization of children independently or in combination.

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