1. Roles and use of computers
2. ADV of EDP over manual processing
3. Computerized information system.
1.0 ROLE AND USE OF COMPUTERS
A Computer is generally used to make work easier. It comes a long way and it has passed through so many generations and these are as follows; first generation, second generation, third generation, fourth generation and firth generation. Generally a computer system accepts process store and produce data into information. Here are some brief details on its operations.
Impute: most computers cannot accept data in forms of customary to human communication such as speech or hand written documents. It is therefore, necessary to present data to the computer in a way that provide ease conversation into electronic pulse-based form. So typing data on the keyboard device which convert it into machine sensible form is an alternative. Input device can be manual or automatic. Manual input device includes; Keyboard, Mouse, Tracker ball, Lay stick etc.
Digital camera: It allows you to take pictures and stores a digital photographic image that can be read by a computer. You can then transfer this Image from your camera directly to your computer.
Microphone: this is a device to impute sound information and can be used with voice recognition system which processes the information. This can be used with a word processing Programme to enter text. It can also be used as part of security system and certain digitally stored voices will gain access.
Touch screen: This is a special type of VDU which have a grid of light beams or line wire crisscrossing the screen. When a screen is touched (usually to choose an on-screen option), the computer senses where you have pressed. The information is stored on the computer and the touch screen is simply an interface. Touch screens have the benefits of very robust and easy to operate and reprogrammed. This is the reason why they are used in public places.
Video digitizer: this takes an image from the video camera or television and converts it so that it can be used and stored in the computer. Video sequences captured using a video digitizer is often used in multimedia presentations.
Storage: data and instructions enter the main storage and are held until needed to be worked on. The instructions dictate the action to be taken on the data that has been presented to the computer system. The results of action will be held when required for output. Main storage is supplemented by less costly auxiliary storage which is also called the backing storage e g, the hard disk for the mass storage purposes. Backing storage serves an important role in maintains data such that data held by the computer to provide information to the user when required to do so. And different methods are appropriate for different uses.
Main memory is also known as primary storage. The main memory keeps back what is being currently processed. Its volatile meaning that, turning the power off erase all the data. For main memory, computers use the random access memory (RAM). These memory chips are the fastest but yet most expensive type of storage.
Auxiliary storage are also called secondary storage. This holds what is not being currently processed. This is the staff that is “filed away” but is read to be pulled out when needed. It is non volatile meaning that turning the power off does not erase the data. Auxiliary storage is where you put last year’s tax information for old customers, programmes you may or may not ever use, data you entered yesterday and every thing that is not being used right now.
2. ADV of EDP over manual processing
Many information system analysts and again the national theorists focus on the information processing capabilities of computer based information. The manipulation of information by the Electronic Data Processing (EDP) may alter the ways in which manual work is accomplished and the social relations in the work settings. Moreover, some problems of work may be reduced or even eliminated through the improved technologies and the EDP. EDP is more productive than their manual computerized counter-parts. The following are some of its advantages over manual processing.
Advantages of EDP over Manual process.
*EDP is faster and reliable *Manual processing is not reliable. It is slow
In that data can be captured and error tolerant. it is easy to make mistakes
and processed and processed hence it becomes time consuming.
within a shot period of time.
*EDP is easy to work with than *the processing of data manually is
Manual. Very few instructions at times expensive in that it requires
will be required. Huge number of man power to process
*it is cheaper because a huge Inadequate of specialized manpower
Number of manpower is not may slow or stop the process. Hence
required to Process data needs a huge number of specialists.
*only one individual can work it is very prone to mistakes when an
On the machine computer. Individual is tired, it will mean the work
Will rest or put to rest.
In conclusion, as clearly stated in the information above, the use of EDP has an advantage for many organizations and companies because the use of EDP is cost saving, time in consuming, etc than manual processing.
Control: the processor also contains the control unit that controls computer operations. The control unit fetches instructions from the main storage, interprets them and issues necessary signals to components making up a computer. It does direct all hardware operations necessary in obeying instructions.
Processing: instructions are obeyed and the necessary arithmetic operations etc are carried out on data. There are many physical components of a computer that are directly involved in processing. The processor chip itself, the memory device and the mother board are the main ones.
Micro-processor: a single silicon chip containing Central processing Unit (CPU), Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) and Read Only memory (ROM). The ROM contains minimum instructions that the computer needs to get started, called booting. What a user does on the computer cannot change what is stored in ROM. They may also be another chip dedicated to calculation. The micro processor chip is located on a large circuit board called the main board or mother board. Random Access Memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. It takes the form of integrated security that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order-that is, at random and without the physical movements of the storage medium or a physical reading head. Computers use ram to hold the Programme code and data during computation. A defining characteristic of ram is that all memory locations can be accessed at almost the same speed. Most other technologies have inherent delays for reading a particular bit or byte. Main types of ram volatile, which means that unlike some other forms of computer storage such as disk storage and tape storage, they loose all data when the computer is powered down.
Central processing unit (CPU). The CPU is the brain of the computer. It is made up of three parts: the control unit, arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and memory. The output is reflected after the computer has operated on the data, it displays information on the monitor and the procedure is shown on the sequence below.
Input (data) ------- Processing (transition) ---------- Output (information)
In conclusion, it is observed that the computer system is very useful to human kind as it makes the work easy and done in the shortest period of time.
3 computerized information system
a computerized information system is a computer dependant information system, this system depends on the use of a computer to work more efficiently. many in formation system analysts and organizational theorists focus on the information processing capabilities of computer-based information system (CBIS). When analyzing there are benefits and limitations.
The research conducted by the computerized information system (CIS) group can be summarized as follows; Explain, predict, design and develop and thus improve the impact of information technology (IT) on the performance of teams, organizations and networks of organizations. We conceptualize some of these elements as the social organization of computing. We define social organization or computing as the patent organization of a mix of computing technologies and social arrangements to support them across organizational units, space and time. This abstract conception can be made concrete by identifying the different organizational units and participants who interact with a given CBIS or kind of computing technology e.g., spreadsheets on micro computers. Some identities;
1. Equipment configurations; the locations of different kinds of equipments (including software) in different organizational units and physical locations.
2. Skills and roles; participant’s skills and the different roles that the groups play in providing data, using data and etc.
3. infrastructure; the support groups and their skills, and the conditions under which their services are accessible to the participants who use the computing technology e.g. pricing policies, restrictions on access to equipment.
4. important spatial and temporal variations in the organization of computing equipment and infrastructure
Social maps like these organization lists indicate how a computing technology is socially organized in a particular setting, they combine both tangible elements, such as the distribution of equipments and intangible elements, such as skill, mixes and patterns of administration control. Since the actual capabilities of computing technology is to deliver usable information depending upon associated skills, resources and adjunct equipment, the social maps helps indicate which capabilities are accessible to whom and when, because it includes some intangible elements, one cannot create.
Carl French (no year) Data processing and information Technology. 10th ed.
Terry Lucy (no year) Management information systems. 8th ed. DP publishers.
Von, H. D. 1961. Christian Ethics. Newyork: Longman.
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